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June 5, 2020, 12:21 pm UTC    
April 07, 2007 10:39AM
Counterweights can be simple enough devices. They can be as simple
as a container at the back of the pyramid tied to a sled containing
stones on the front. As water is added to the container it will be-
come sufficiently to fall and lift the stones.

I believe most of the work was done from the north side and employed
three counterweights. The primary lifter was in the center and was
sufficiently robust to lift ten stones at a time. The two auxiallary
lifters were equidistant from the center to the edge of the base. The
west was used to lift men and supplies to the top and, in conjunction
with the east counterweight, to pull stone up out of the quarry to the
base of the pyramid. These counterweights were not extremely difficult
to move and lifts were made from all sides of the structure. The quar-
ry is to the south and is horseshoe shaped with the ends ramped up to-
ward the pyramid. The concavity on each side is because they expected
the counterweight to run more smoothly following such a feature and the
extra definition in the center of these concavities was caused by the
wear and tear of the sleds moving up and down for hundreds of thousands
of lifts. There are less well defined grooves on the north side which
probably were caused by the auxillaries.

I suspect the pie shaped "proto-pulleys found in the desert are actually
couplings for the stones. These are pie shaped with long grooves along
the edge and a hole near the tip. A complete coupling would have a seven
inch peg through the hole. The coefficient of static friction would be
a huge fraction of the force required to pull a long train of stones to-
ward the pyramid. When the inertia was overcome the ounterweight would
accelerate to a high speed and put equipment and men at risk. If these
"proto-pulleys" were lashed toward the front of the stones and then used
to connect it to the leading stone through the peg then each stone would
be moved in turn and then stopped in turn. The counterweight could be re-
set by adding weight to the south side, the ropes shortened and then the
train pulled again.

There is insufficient room for ramps and if there had been ramps there
would still be insufficient room to work. The ramps out of the quarry
suggest the stone was moved directly to the pyramid. The quarry isn't nearly
large enough to hold all the removed ramping that would have been necessary.


There is sand in the queens chamber that is unlike the any found at Giza.
It is finer for one thing. This could have been brought in with the water
which was naturally flowing. It's very difficult to imagine ANY reason
whatsoever that they might have imported sand for construction.

The most difficult part of this theory to date is explaining the source of
the water. It is likely from Lake Moeris to the SW but the elevations are
difficult. This entire region is limestone which is prone to the develop-
ment of caves due to the ready dissolution of stone along horiziontal fault
lines laid down when the stone formed. These caves normally form just below
the water table.

The grotto of the GP is at 225' above sea level. The Nile at Lake Moeris
was probably not more than 80' above sea level in ancient times. However
there is new speculation that the entire lower Nile was once a vast canyon
which was carved when the Mederteranean Sea was at far lower level in the
far distant past. It's entirely concievable that the caves formed then and
only started flowing when the canyon filled in. There is also a vast area
of North Africa today which recieves 5" of rainfall annually and is drained
by no river. Possibly if there were more rain it would emerge in this area.
Amazon floods are as high as 180' and this alone would be sufficient to get
the water to 35' at Giza.

Whatever the source one might suggest that its existence would be of extreme
value to people who were displaced from their homes annually during the flood
at the hottest time of the year. It would be a source of wonder to the first
people in this area as well. The water would have simply flowed up and run
right down hill into the Nile but they would quickly think of piling rocks
around it to raise its level and to direct it for irrigation. Over the cent-
uries they would come to learn that haphazardly constructed dams would be soon
destroyed by the water so they would develope technology to contain it. It
went from a mastaba to a step pyramid. Eventually their understanding of math,
masonry, and hydraulics led to the idea of building the GP right over the top
of the existing step pyramid. They tunneled through the existing pyramid, of
which Petrie spoke.

It may well have been this very flowing water which is the real well spring of
human creativity and civilization. It may have made permanent settlement and
farming possible in this area. It would at least have speeded things up dram-
atically.

...And it may just be a crackpot idea.
Subject Author Posted

Pyramid construction.

cladking April 06, 2007 11:25PM

Re: Pyramid construction.

Ronald April 07, 2007 06:20AM

Re: Pyramid construction.

cladking April 07, 2007 10:39AM

Re: Pyramid construction.

cladking April 07, 2007 10:44AM

Re: Pyramid construction.

Anthony April 07, 2007 11:00AM

Re: Pyramid construction.

cladking April 07, 2007 04:12PM

Re: Pyramid construction.

Anthony April 07, 2007 04:17PM

Re: Pyramid construction.

cladking April 07, 2007 04:59PM

Floating Stones...

Jammer April 07, 2007 12:36PM

Re: Floating Stones...

cladking April 07, 2007 03:45PM

Re: Floating Stones...

Marc Steurbaut April 07, 2007 04:52PM

Re: Floating Stones...

cladking April 07, 2007 05:07PM

Re: Floating Stones...

Ronald April 07, 2007 05:53PM

Re: Floating Stones...

cladking April 07, 2007 06:20PM

Re: Floating Stones...

MJ Thomas April 08, 2007 05:40AM

Re: Floating Stones...

cladking April 08, 2007 09:45AM

Re: Floating Stones...

Warwick L Nixon April 08, 2007 11:16AM

Re: Floating Stones...

MJ Thomas April 09, 2007 04:47AM

Re: Floating Stones...

Warwick L Nixon April 09, 2007 10:22AM

Re: Floating Stones...

MJ Thomas April 09, 2007 04:59PM

Re: Floating Stones...

Warwick L Nixon April 10, 2007 10:58AM

Re: Floating Stones...

MJ Thomas April 10, 2007 11:46AM

Re: Floating Stones...

Warwick L Nixon April 10, 2007 12:00PM

Re: Floating Stones...

MJ Thomas April 10, 2007 12:25PM

Re: Floating Stones...

Warwick L Nixon April 10, 2007 12:34PM

Request

Hermione April 10, 2007 12:36PM

Re: Request

Warwick L Nixon April 10, 2007 12:39PM

Re: Floating Stones...

Ronald April 08, 2007 03:59PM

Re: Floating Stones...

cladking April 08, 2007 04:52PM

Re: Floating Stones...

Anthony April 09, 2007 10:47AM

Re: Floating Stones...

cladking April 09, 2007 04:40PM

Re: Floating Stones...

Anthony April 09, 2007 05:10PM

Re: Floating Stones...

cladking April 09, 2007 06:09PM

Re: Floating Stones...

Anthony April 09, 2007 07:20PM

Re: Floating Stones...

cladking April 09, 2007 09:00PM

Re: Floating Stones...

C Wayne Taylor April 09, 2007 08:11PM

Re: Floating Stones...

Anthony April 10, 2007 04:41AM

Re: Floating Stones...

MJ Thomas April 10, 2007 07:05AM

Re: Floating Stones...

cladking April 10, 2007 10:19AM

Re: Floating Stones...

Anthony April 10, 2007 11:31AM

Re: Floating Stones...

Warwick L Nixon April 10, 2007 11:45AM

Re: Floating Stones...

cladking April 10, 2007 01:27PM

Re: Floating Stones...

Ronald April 10, 2007 05:23PM

Re: Floating Stones...

Anthony April 10, 2007 06:42PM

Re: Floating Stones...

cladking April 10, 2007 01:00PM

Re: Floating Stones...

Anthony April 10, 2007 01:49PM

Re: Floating Stones...

cladking April 10, 2007 02:23PM

Re: Floating Stones...

Ronald April 08, 2007 04:05PM

Re: Floating Stones...

Anthony April 09, 2007 10:50AM

Re: Floating Stones...

Ronald April 07, 2007 05:44PM

Re: Floating Stones...

Marc Steurbaut April 08, 2007 01:50AM

Re: Floating Stones...

cladking April 08, 2007 09:52AM

Re: Floating Stones...

Marc Steurbaut April 08, 2007 11:04AM

Re: Floating Stones...

Anthony April 09, 2007 10:56AM

Re: Floating Stones...

cladking April 09, 2007 04:46PM

Re: Floating Stones...

Archae Solenhofen April 09, 2007 05:30PM

Re: Floating Stones...

Anthony April 09, 2007 07:24PM

Re: Floating Stones...

Archae Solenhofen April 10, 2007 11:38AM

Working link to Davidovits (1984)

Archae Solenhofen April 10, 2007 11:26AM

Re: Floating Stones...

Ronald April 08, 2007 04:21PM

4 million molds

Anthony April 09, 2007 10:58AM

Re: 4 million molds

Marc Steurbaut April 09, 2007 11:01AM

Re: 4 million molds

Anthony April 09, 2007 11:08AM

Means and Ends

Warwick L Nixon April 09, 2007 11:10AM

Re: 4 million molds

C Wayne Taylor April 09, 2007 11:15AM

Re: Floating Stones...

Anthony April 09, 2007 10:52AM

Re: Floating Stones...

Marc Steurbaut April 10, 2007 02:13AM

Re: Floating Stones... a request for Kat

Anthony April 10, 2007 04:53AM

Re: Floating Stones... a request for Kat

Katherine Reece April 10, 2007 10:31AM

Re: Floating Stones...

C Wayne Taylor April 10, 2007 08:44AM

Re: Floating Stones...

Anthony April 10, 2007 08:55AM

Re: Floating Stones...

Anthony April 09, 2007 10:41AM

Re: Floating Stones...

Warwick L Nixon April 09, 2007 10:54AM

Re: Floating Stones...

cladking April 09, 2007 05:01PM

Re: Floating Stones...

Ronald April 10, 2007 10:27AM

Re: Floating Stones...

cladking April 10, 2007 11:04AM

Re: Floating Stones...

Ronald April 10, 2007 04:54PM

Re: Floating Stones...

cladking April 10, 2007 10:59PM

Re: Floating Stones...

Ronald April 11, 2007 01:35AM

Re: Floating Stones...

C Wayne Taylor April 11, 2007 05:35AM

Re: Floating Stones...

cladking April 11, 2007 09:38AM

Re: Floating Stones...

C Wayne Taylor April 11, 2007 10:00AM

Re: Floating Stones...

Anthony April 11, 2007 10:12AM

Re: Floating Stones...

cladking April 11, 2007 04:29PM

Re: Floating Stones...

Anthony April 11, 2007 04:58PM

Re: Floating Stones...

cladking April 11, 2007 06:24PM

Re: Floating Stones...

Anthony April 11, 2007 06:36PM

Re: Floating Stones...

cladking April 11, 2007 08:19PM

Calling Archae Solenhofen...Geology Question!!!

Anthony April 12, 2007 04:52AM

Re: Floating Stones...

C Wayne Taylor April 12, 2007 05:21AM

Re: Pyramid construction.

Ronald April 08, 2007 04:46PM

Re: Pyramid construction.

cladking April 08, 2007 05:14PM

Re: Pyramid construction.

cladking April 09, 2007 09:11PM

Re: Pyramid construction.

Anthony April 10, 2007 08:53AM

Re: Pyramid construction.

MJ Thomas April 10, 2007 09:56AM

Re: Pyramid construction.

Anthony April 10, 2007 10:15AM

Re: Pyramid construction.

MJ Thomas April 10, 2007 11:24AM

Re: Pyramid construction.

Anthony April 10, 2007 11:42AM

Re: Pyramid construction.

MJ Thomas April 10, 2007 12:19PM

Re: Pyramid construction.

Warwick L Nixon April 10, 2007 12:37PM

Re: Pyramid construction.

MJ Thomas April 10, 2007 05:32PM

Re: Pyramid construction.

Anthony April 10, 2007 02:32PM

Re: Pyramid construction.

MJ Thomas April 10, 2007 04:39PM

Re: Pyramid construction.

Anthony April 10, 2007 07:01PM

Re: Pyramid construction.

MJ Thomas April 11, 2007 02:06AM

Re: Pyramid construction.

Anthony April 11, 2007 04:40AM

Re: Pyramid construction.

cladking April 10, 2007 09:57AM

Re: Pyramid construction.

Anthony April 10, 2007 11:27AM

Re: Pyramid construction.

cladking April 10, 2007 02:17PM

Re: Pyramid construction.

Anthony April 10, 2007 02:58PM

Re: Pyramid construction.

cladking April 10, 2007 04:50PM

Re: Pyramid construction.

Anthony April 11, 2007 09:25AM

Re: Pyramid construction.

cladking April 11, 2007 04:42PM

Re: Pyramid construction.

Anthony April 11, 2007 05:05PM

Re: Pyramid construction.

cladking April 11, 2007 09:05PM

Best answer of the day

Anthony April 12, 2007 10:52AM

Re: Pyramid construction.

MJ Thomas April 10, 2007 05:08PM

Re: Pyramid construction.

Anthony April 10, 2007 06:38PM

Re: Pyramid construction.

MJ Thomas April 11, 2007 02:04AM

Re: Pyramid construction.

Anthony April 11, 2007 09:00AM

Re: Pyramid construction.

MJ Thomas April 11, 2007 10:06AM

Re: Pyramid construction.

Anthony April 11, 2007 10:26AM

Re: Pyramid construction.

MJ Thomas April 11, 2007 05:13PM

Re: Pyramid construction.

Anthony April 11, 2007 05:44PM

Re: Pyramid construction.

MJ Thomas April 12, 2007 06:37AM

Re: Pyramid construction.

Anthony April 12, 2007 08:28AM

Moderation Note

Katherine Reece April 12, 2007 08:33AM

Re: Moderation Note

MJ Thomas April 12, 2007 12:31PM

Re: Pyramid construction.

Warwick L Nixon April 12, 2007 09:33AM

Re: Pyramid construction.

Anthony April 12, 2007 11:02AM

Re: Pyramid construction.

Warwick L Nixon April 12, 2007 11:47AM

Re: Pyramid construction.

Anthony April 12, 2007 11:54AM

Re: Pyramid construction.

Warwick L Nixon April 14, 2007 09:31AM

Re: Pyramid construction.

Anthony April 12, 2007 10:42AM

Re: Pyramid construction.

cladking April 11, 2007 06:29PM

Re: Pyramid construction.

MJ Thomas April 10, 2007 05:18PM

Re: Pyramid construction.

Anthony April 11, 2007 09:05AM

Re: Pyramid construction.

Ronald April 11, 2007 09:14AM

Re: Pyramid construction.

Anthony April 11, 2007 09:33AM

Re: Pyramid construction.

MJ Thomas April 11, 2007 03:55PM

Re: Pyramid construction.

cladking April 10, 2007 10:36AM

Re: Pyramid construction.

Anthony April 10, 2007 11:47AM



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