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October 19, 2019, 9:30 am UTC    
July 07, 2019 07:12PM
The shafts, all four of them in G1, are and will remain an enigma regarding their function and/or purpose. Any and all theories regarding them have the same value... pure speculation.

I happen to have my own speculation...

First of all there is no other pyramid location in Egypt with shafts. The fact that G1 has two sets in my view says more than the usual anecdotal; the builder had built the queens chamber with shafts and the ascending grand gallery and then changed his mind and abandoned the work for the upper chamber and new shafts, a ridiculous theory... the queens chamber shafts end at equal lengths and height well above the upper chamber.

The most logical and real linear trajectory when stacking stone atop stone is up, in this case we all agree the queens chamber existed before the upper chamber. That it exists at the end of a horizontal passage that has a step and the passage has three different symmetric constructs for its walls...from the ascending passage the passage walls are constructed by 2 x 1 cubit stones perfectly stack together rather than offset, this peculiar stacking method runs well over half the length of the passage and it is well performed and jointed with the grand gallery (which forces the northern shaft to go around its construct.

After this portion the passage walls are constructed of single stones (3 on each side), and these stones have varying lengths and like the former are jointed at the passage floor level (i.e. they were set atop the passage floor stones), single blocks of stone end un-evenly just before the step.

The third section of wall stones are uniquely set into the passage floor the same way the chamber wall stones are set into the chamber floor and remarkably they are comprised of two courses which are offset and these course levels correspond directly to the first two chamber course levels.

No other pyramid in all of Egypt has a horizontal passage as long and as varied in construct as the one inside G1. Moreover we know that there is a hillock G1 was built atop and it more than likely runs below the chamber (at what depth is not known but the well shaft is a good source).

The Giza plateau has a long history of being used as an important burial site, At the turn of the century Reisner discovered three separate epochs of early tombs in the northern wadi... hmm three.

Imagine that at the earliest use of the plateau, long before the 4th dynasty kings, there stood high above all else this choice hillock, that had a significant crevasse atop it that one could peer down into. In my view this location would hold a significant value to those in charge of the afterlife (royal and such) and that perhaps many sacrifices were invoked there that these early users of the site decided to build the first stone temple there in honor of their gods.

It's my opinion that the queens chamber is but a remnant of this first construct idea of mine atop the hillock, that the east and west walls are all that are left there and so too the east wall niche is part of it. That subsequently the site became the ritual tomb of a god, maybe Osiris, maybe Sokar or perhaps ptah or Menes.

I suspect when the early temple was incorporated into a tomb the shaft purpose were an existing element used in the temple and were necessary for the god's tomb. The north and south walls were then inserted as well the ceiling stones...overall these walls are shorter than the east and west walls and the ceiling stones rest against the east and west walls not atop them, this is when the shafts were extended and the Grand Gallery was built, representing the three epochs of construct of the horizontal passage. The tomb was hidden and sealed below the gallery.

The westcar papyrus has some interesting mythology in the stories it relates from the 4th dynasty... Khufu want to know the secrets of Thoths hidden chamber so he could build his own horizon...

hence, for me, the shafts of the upper chamber were replicated by Khufu for his own horizon.

In my opinion, Khufu incorporated an existing structure of high value and importance to the afterlife, it's one reason the entrance is not centered on the north side... he built the kings chamber but not the queens chamber.

The shafts point to two different hemispheres in the sky not to specific stars, at least in my view, they belong to a very old and sacred ritual purpose that occurred only at Giza and nowhere else.

Its pure speculation... perhaps the ancients painted the names of gods or royal sereks on the backs or bellies of dung beetles and released them into the shafts to eventually find their way out into the two hemispheres... I recall reading when the first explorer broke into the releaving chambers above the upper chamber he was amazed at finding a thick layer of decayed insects in the first chamber... maybe they were remnant dung beetles?

Best regards,

B.A.Hokom

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