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June 6, 2020, 7:39 pm UTC    
January 29, 2020 03:20PM
Hello to the forum members!

I am Alexander Puchkov - the author of the article from the first post of this topic.
I invite all, who interested in issue of astronomical orientation of the egyptian pyramids to the discussion.

My research led to the following conclusions (in order of importance):

1. As a result of the study, it became apparent that Egyptian chronology has great uncertainty for the dating of periods older than the Middle Kingdom (for the MK there are proven synchronisms; the dating of MK is also well confirmed by radiocarbon data). For the Old Kingdom (OK) and the First Intermediate Peroid (FIP), dating floats within the limits of 200 years due to the uncertainty in the duration of the FIP and the lack of any synchronisms for earlier periods. The results of radiocarbon dating for the OK at the beginning of the millennium (Bonani, Haas) gave older dates for it (about 200-250 years; the “old wood” problem). More recent studies of radiocarbonists (Dee, Ramsey) attempted to disguise the problem and support current chronology. Older dates for the OK are confirmed by Manetho's (Eusebius's) data on the duration of 9-10th dynasties. Currently accepted point of view about the age of the OK is based on the ultra-short duration of 9-10th dynasties proposed by chronologists (Beckerath) in the second half of the 20th century and based entirely on assumptions.

2. Adjustment of the dates of the OK by 200 years to the past eliminates the problem of the "old wood", brings the duration of the FIP in correspondence with the Maneto's data and shifts the 4th dynasty to the times of the closest approach of the Thuban to the celestial Pole. The coincidence in time of these events makes it possible to conclude (as correctly noted by Mark Heaton above) that no more complicated method was necessary to orient the pyramids of the 4th dynasty than simple orientation to the pole star (this is the simplest and most logical method of orientation to the northern circumpolar region; at the moment, it is generally accepted that the Egyptians used one of the "bisector" methods to orient structures to the true north; all bisector methods, especially the method using the artificial horizon (Edwards), are complex and sophisticated and more consistent with the knowledge of the modern researcher).

3. A brief study of egyptian iconography showed that there was a special position of the Meskhetiu asterism (its upper culmination, when the stars are best seen) which the Egyptians highlighted and considered a sacred position.

4. Comparison of the graphs on azimuths of the base's sides of the OK pyramids and the azimuths of the circumpolar stars (7 stars of Meskhetiu and the pole star - Thuban) showed that the orientation of all funerary complexes was carried out towards selected circumpolar stars in the same position of the sky (in the upper culmination of Meskhetiu), and not towards the true north.

5. The coincidence of the azimuths of burial complexes of Khufu and Khafre confirmed the assumption (Belmonte, Magli) that these two complexes were probably the parts of a single plan and were laid at the same time. (Several strong arguments testify in favor of this conclusion.)

6. The parameters of Djoser's serdab allow to conclude that the statue observed the eastern horizon by watching the star in the north, and thus awaited the resurrection of the king in the eastern sky (as the Sah asterism). This observation indicates that during the reign of Djoser, both northern and eastern skies were important for funeral rituals but the focus was gradually shifting from the northern sky (the circumpolar region of the sky where the Duat was located in the opinion of an earlier tradition) to the eastern sky (the myth about Osiris-Sah gets more and more significance; the Duat moved beneat the earth).

I am interested in any comments, new observations and arguments both on the issues covered in the article and on the topic of the astronomical orientation of the pyramids in general.



Edited 3 time(s). Last edit at 01/29/2020 03:26PM by keeperzz.
Subject Author Posted

Egyptian starry tales. Part I: "Stretching of the cord" ceremony for aligning Old Kingdom pyramids

Hermione December 10, 2019 11:41AM

Re: Sirius, Alpha Draconis and Great Pyramid

Mark Heaton December 14, 2019 02:11PM

Re: Egyptian starry tales. Part I: "Stretching of the cord" ceremony for aligning Old Kingdom pyramids

keeperzz January 29, 2020 03:20PM

Re: Egyptian starry tales. Part I: "Stretching of the cord" ceremony for aligning Old Kingdom pyramids

cladking January 29, 2020 05:50PM

Re: Egyptian starry tales. Part I: "Stretching of the cord" ceremony for aligning Old Kingdom pyramids

Hans January 29, 2020 07:51PM

Re: Egyptian starry tales. Part I: "Stretching of the cord" ceremony for aligning Old Kingdom pyramids

cladking January 30, 2020 12:54PM

Re: Egyptian starry tales. Part I: "Stretching of the cord" ceremony for aligning Old Kingdom pyramids

keeperzz January 30, 2020 01:11PM

Re: Egyptian starry tales. Part I: "Stretching of the cord" ceremony for aligning Old Kingdom pyramids

engbren January 30, 2020 07:25AM

Re: Egyptian starry tales. Part I: "Stretching of the cord" ceremony for aligning Old Kingdom pyramids

keeperzz January 30, 2020 11:59AM

Re: Egyptian starry tales. Part I: "Stretching of the cord" ceremony for aligning Old Kingdom pyramids

engbren January 31, 2020 03:31AM

Re: Egyptian starry tales. Part I: "Stretching of the cord" ceremony for aligning Old Kingdom pyramids

keeperzz January 31, 2020 06:11AM

Re: Egyptian starry tales. Part I: "Stretching of the cord" ceremony for aligning Old Kingdom pyramids

engbren February 04, 2020 03:03AM

Re: Egyptian starry tales. Part I: "Stretching of the cord" ceremony for aligning Old Kingdom pyramids

keeperzz February 06, 2020 08:29AM

Re: Egyptian starry tales. Part I: "Stretching of the cord" ceremony for aligning Old Kingdom pyramids

engbren February 11, 2020 07:42AM

Complimentary Theory

engbren February 17, 2020 04:00AM

Re: Complimentary Theory

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Re: Complimentary Theory

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Re: Egyptian starry tales. Part I: "Stretching of the cord" ceremony for aligning Old Kingdom pyramids

Hermione January 30, 2020 12:35PM

Re: Egyptian starry tales. Part I: "Stretching of the cord" ceremony for aligning Old Kingdom pyramids

keeperzz January 30, 2020 01:17PM

Re: Egyptian starry tales. Part I: "Stretching of the cord" ceremony for aligning Old Kingdom pyramids

Hermione January 30, 2020 03:15PM

Re: Egyptian starry tales. Part I: "Stretching of the cord" ceremony for aligning Old Kingdom pyramids

robin cook January 31, 2020 12:21PM

Re: Egyptian starry tales. Part I: "Stretching of the cord" ceremony for aligning Old Kingdom pyramids

keeperzz January 31, 2020 06:23PM

Re: Egyptian starry tales. Part I: "Stretching of the cord" ceremony for aligning Old Kingdom pyramids

robin cook February 01, 2020 05:21PM

Re: Egyptian starry tales. Part I: "Stretching of the cord" ceremony for aligning Old Kingdom pyramids

keeperzz February 02, 2020 04:12PM

Re: Star shafts

keeperzz February 05, 2020 10:49AM

Re: Star shafts

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Re: Star shafts

keeperzz February 06, 2020 03:00PM

Re: Star shafts

GChase February 05, 2020 03:42PM

Re: Dating the pyramid using QC Star shafts

GChase February 05, 2020 05:27PM

Re: Dating the pyramid using the KC star shaft

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Re: Dating the pyramid using the KC star shaft

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Re: Dating the pyramid using QC Star shafts

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Re: Dating the pyramid using QC Star shafts

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Re: Check for KCS shaft

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Re: Check for KCS shaft

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Re: Check for KCS shaft

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Re: Check for KCS shaft

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Re: Check for KCS shaft

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Re: Check for KCS shaft

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Re: Check for KCS shaft

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Re: Check for KCS shaft

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Re: Dating the pyramid using QC Star shafts

GChase February 09, 2020 12:33PM

Re: Dating the pyramid using QC Star shafts

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Re: Star shafts

keeperzz February 06, 2020 10:31AM

Re: Star shafts

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Re: Star shafts

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Re: Target for KCS shaft

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Re: Target for KCS shaft

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Re: Target for KCS shaft

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Re: Target for KCS shaft

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Re: Target for KCS shaft

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Re: Target for KCS shaft

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Re: Target for KCS shaft

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Re: Target for KCS shaft

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Re: Target for KCS shaft

GChase February 14, 2020 04:21PM

Re: Target for KCS shaft

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Re: Target for KCS shaft

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Re: Egyptian starry tales. Part I: "Stretching of the cord" ceremony for aligning Old Kingdom pyramids

Kanga February 01, 2020 10:47PM

Re: Egyptian starry tales. Part I: "Stretching of the cord" ceremony for aligning Old Kingdom pyramids

keeperzz February 02, 2020 04:39PM

Re: Egyptian starry tales. Part I: "Stretching of the cord" ceremony for aligning Old Kingdom pyramids

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Re: Radiocarbon dating for the Old Kingdom

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Re: Egyptian starry tales. Part I: "Stretching of the cord" ceremony for aligning Old Kingdom pyramids

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Re: Egyptian starry tales. Part I: "Stretching of the cord" ceremony for aligning Old Kingdom pyramids

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Re: Egyptian starry tales. Part I: "Stretching of the cord" ceremony for aligning Old Kingdom pyramids

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Re: Egyptian starry tales. Part I: "Stretching of the cord" ceremony for aligning Old Kingdom pyramids

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