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I tend to agree that we should consider the geometry first, which may then provide a reason why the geometry was chosen.
For example, the niche in the socalled Queen's Chamber was probably for the king's statue or ka statue, and is displaced from the centre of the chamber by eight and a half palms or 34 digits, precisely so based on Petrie's measurements near the base, so by 25
by
Mark Heaton

Ancient Egypt
Hi Robin,
My recollection of Smyth's survey around the plug block was that he thought he may not have accomplished it very accurately, so I compared to Petrie's determination.
From memory Petrie's determination was precisely the same as Smyth's determination accurate to a small fraction of an inch.
It should be remembered that Petrie wanted a rigorous set of measurem
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Mark Heaton

Ancient Egypt
Hi Hermione,
Yes, I searched the archive in one of the two ways after my post, and before your post.
I didn't find anything.
Problem no 14 in the MMP should, perhaps, have informed debates on the seked.
My review and evaluation of problem no 14 is currently based on the papers of Thomas and Vetter (in JEA) as I haven't yet seen the papers by Gunn & Peet or Vogel which ar
by
Mark Heaton

Ancient Egypt
I started researching websites etc earlier this month having looked at problem no 14 on the volume of a truncated pyramid over 15 years ago.
T. E. Peet, Brunner Professor of Egyptology at the University of Liverpool, left posterity with an article on Mathematics in Ancient Egypt as an amplification of a lecture given in the Rylands Library on 11th February 1931.
This article includes the f
by
Mark Heaton

Ancient Egypt
For me this about the balance of evidence in its historical context so probability rather certainty.
The base of sarcophagus is at the level where the area of the triangular crosssections of the pyramid is divided into 2 sections with the same area, and each half is equal to the area of a semicircle with the circle's diameter equal to the height of the pyramid, as calculated from the pi
by
Mark Heaton

Ancient Egypt
Yes, I think many alternative ideas are tenable, although different ideas can be mutually exclusive.
I decided to post on the spur of the moment after reading through some of my notes from a few years ago which I had forgotten, so almost like reading a theory from someone else, but later wondered if I had already raised this topic on this forum.
Petrie labelled the theories of the sarcophag
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Mark Heaton

Ancient Egypt
I try to avoid websites I don't know as my 2005 computer has little or no security, but if you can make the point yourself then I will try to answer.
Mark
by
Mark Heaton

Ancient Egypt
A model of the equinoctial sun latent in the configuration of the sarcophagus of Khufu's Horizon:
The sarcophagus in Khufu's Horizon is slightly skewed.
Its long external diagonal is 1/2 digit longer than the short external diagonal, so the long diagonal is precisely 1/4 digit longer than would have been the case for a perfect rectangle and the short diagonal is 1/4 digit shorter
by
Mark Heaton

Ancient Egypt
Well done.
Good reasons must, of force, give way to better.
Mark
by
Mark Heaton

Ancient Egypt
Taking your figures at face value without checking:
The bend is 0.11 metres lower than the height predicted in the model from Petrie's survey assuming Petrie's cubit of 20.68 inches as 90 cubits x 52.53 cm = 47.28 metres compared to 47.17 metres.
It must be remembered that if there was a change in plan then the level of 90 cubits would not have been a crucial design feature at the
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Mark Heaton

Ancient Egypt
Thanks for that.
Just read Perring's survey as reported by Vyse
From Perring's survey data the northsouth axis is very close to the centre line of the second antechamber.
I get a difference of about 3 inches.
Have I got this right?
Also the peak of the pyramid is above the second antechamber, about 3.6 cubits from the south wall by quick calculation.
Have I got this right?
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Mark Heaton

Ancient Egypt
Hi Alex,
What you now propose is just the scheme that has already mentioned on this thread for which you raised the objection that it did not explain the upper slope of the Bent Pyramid, so you now want to focus on just the lower section to avoid your own question mark which is reasonable enough.
I agree that the corner angle of Bent Pyramid is slope angle of faces of Red Pyramid, but not q
by
Mark Heaton

Ancient Egypt
Just watched video. Interesting.
If there is no vertical passage in the Great Pyramid then perhaps the vertical shaft is part of the proposed stellar observatory.
I am trying to imagine what what one would see through a vertical shaft, presumably stars at 60 degrees from the pole if stars are imagined as on the surface of a sphere or hemisphere concentric with the earth, so would any such s
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Mark Heaton

Ancient Egypt
The usual digression to the Great Pyramid is interesting in relation to my model of the Red Pyramid.
Most regard the half area level of the Great Pyramid as the most important level because the king's sarcophagus was placed at that level within the King's Chamber.
The half area level is usually explained as the area where the square of the rising crosssection is half that of the
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Mark Heaton

Ancient Egypt
Hi Alex
Does Dorner give any more detail on the side length of 219.08 metres.
What lengths did he determine for N,S,E, and W. ?
Mark
by
Mark Heaton

Ancient Egypt
It was Petrie's theory that the inner structure and the descending passage were the basis of the orientation, not the final finish of the casing sides, and he assumed that the alignment to the pole of the night sky was near to perfect so as then to deduce the change in the position of the pole since the third millennium BC supposing that the currents in the oceans were shifting the land.
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Mark Heaton

Ancient Egypt
Hi Alex,
Thanks for the detail on the angles.
In my model the following was on the drawing board for the revised design of the Bent Pyramid:
The cotangent of the revised lower slope on the south side of the Bent Pyramid is the seked of 5 palms which has a symbolic cotangent of 180/252 as (9 x 20)/(9 x 28).
The mean lower slope on the eastwest axis of the Bent Pyramid is extremely clo
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Mark Heaton

Ancient Egypt
Hi Alex,
Satellite Pyramid / Red Pyramid parallels
But can you show me where this angle of 44 degrees 44 minutes is written by Dorner? On a diagram or in a sentence that you can quote?
This pyramid has a 360 symbolism because all four axes of the pyramid N/S, E/W, NE/SW and NW/SE divide the second antechamber as if into sections of 8 x 45 degrees from which I have deduced a model of the
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Mark Heaton

Ancient Egypt
I have looked at my drawing again and observed that the inner structure with a side length of 300 cubits has a base area of 90.000 square cubits.
The simple model of 360 cubit base, seked of 5 palms to 90 cubits (revised after starting out at 10/7), seked of 7.5 palms for upper slope (please excuse decimal), means the area projected by the upper pyramid (y x y) to the 360 base level is 180,000
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Mark Heaton

Ancient Egypt
Hi Graham,
Thanks for your help.
It seems clear to me, having looked at fig 5 for the first time just a few minutes ago, that the level of 0.75 metres is clearly labelled as the base level of the inner structure which therefore had a base level 10 palms higher than the bent pyramid base level.
The bent pyramid base level is clearly labelled at 0.0 metres relative to the inner structure,
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Mark Heaton

Ancient Egypt
But Alex has just clarified this matter to leave us all in no doubt about what was measured as my last post, so Robin Cook has been right all along in his view of the dimensions of the base of the Bent Pyramid, and so have I, but we have come to entirely different reasons for those dimensions.
Mark
by
Mark Heaton

Ancient Egypt
RE BENT PYRAMID:
Petrie's mean side length is 7459.0 inches corresponding to a cubit of 20.719 inches assuming a design length of 360 cubits, or 20.605 inches assuming a design length of 362 cubits.
Dorner's mean side length is 7465.0 inches corresponding to a cubit of 20.736 inches assuming a design length of 360 cubits, or 20.622 inches assuming a design length of 362 cubits.
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Mark Heaton

Ancient Egypt
I haven't read Dorner's survey of the Bent Pyramid / Red Pyramid.
Can anyone provide link(s) as I couldn't find it on the internet?
I know its in German, but I hope to be able to pick out figures and look at any diagrams.
Mark
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Mark Heaton

Ancient Egypt
Hi Robin,
Thanks for your contribution.
I found your model of the layout of the chambers of the Red Pyramid so interesting 5 years ago, but put it on one side as I couldn't find an underlying reason for the design after a number of hours studying the model.
My theory of the Bent Pyramid complex can be put on one side in elucidating the design of the Red Pyramid, but I thought I woul
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Mark Heaton

Ancient Egypt
Quote:
Smyth identifies Melchizedek as Shem a son of Noah who he believes is mentioned in Herodotus The Histories Book 2: 128 as the shepherd Philitis:
End of quote.
Smyth should have known that Melchizedek was without beginning or ending of days according to the Bible, so could not have been a son of Noah.
Mark
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Mark Heaton

Ancient Egypt
Thanks for qualifying your determination of positions of the pyramids on Google Earth compared to the modern survey work of Dash.
The record of Smyth's work on three separate days in March and April 1865 is in Smyth vol 2 pages 177 to 183., but his interpretation is in 'Our Inheritance in the Great Pyramid on pages 79 and 80 in the Fourth Edition:
Smyth noted that the pyramid should
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Mark Heaton

Ancient Egypt
Google Earth measurements are surely more accurate than Petrie's measurements which, as Petrie pointed out, were only intended to be an approximate assessment, but even Petrie's data is close enough to my model because that's what I worked from before attempting a more accurate assessment as confirmed by Chris.
The crowning glory of my model is not yet apparent because step by s
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Mark Heaton

Ancient Egypt
Hi Chris,
Thanks for your determinations of distance and bearing of Red Pyramid from Bent Pyramid.
I got 2055 metres to the nearest metre the same as you.
My theory is that the distance is 1/sr44 x 25,920 cubits which is 27,353 palms or 3907.6 cubits.
Petrie regarded the cubit as 20.68 inches plus or minus 0.03 inches for the Bent Pyramid and its Satellite Pyramid (with the Satellite
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Mark Heaton

Ancient Egypt
Hi Chris,
I thought others must have come to the same conclusion as Petrie on the slope of the Red Pyramid, but for some reason Edwards and others have expressed the view that the upper slope of the Bent Pyramid was adopted as the slope of the Red Pyramid even though Petrie highlighted Perring's error and obtained very similar slopes for all four sides of the Red Pyramid from its core mas
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Mark Heaton

Ancient Egypt
Mark Heaton Wrote:

CORRECTION OF TYPOGRAPHICAL ERROR
>
> Petrie calculated the height of the Satellite
> Pyramid incorrectly as 2034 inches having quoted
> an angle of 44 degrees 34 minutes and a mean side
> length of 2064.6 CUBITS.
>
I should have written
Petrie calculated the height of the Satellite
> Py
by
Mark Heaton

Ancient Egypt
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Pages: 12345