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Tiwanaku (Tiahuanaco) Site Bibliography

The Tiahuanaco Site, which is currently called the “Tiwanaku Site”, is used to support various ideas about global floods, Earth Crustal Displacement, and prehistoric high-tech civilizations. The people making these claims simply ignore most, if not all, of the research about the Tiwanaku Site that has been conducted and published over the last two or three decades.

Books

Albarracín-Jordán , J. V., 1996, Tiwanakuarqueología regional y dinámica segmentaria. Editores Plural, La Paz, Bolivia.

Albarracín-Jordán, J. V., 1999, The Archaeology of Tiwanaku: The Myths, History, and Science of an Ancient Andean Civilization. Impresión P.A.P., La Paz, Bolivia.

Albarracín-Jordán, J. V. and J. E. Mathews, 1990, Asentamientos prehispánicos del Valle de Tiwanaku, Vol. 1. Producciones CIMA, La Paz, Bolivia.

Alconini Mujica, S., 1995, Rito, símbolo e historia en la pirámide de Akapana, Tiwanaku : un análisis de cerámica ceremonial prehispánica. Editorial Acción, La Paz, Bolivia.

Bandy, Matthew S., 2001, Population and History in the Ancient Titicaca Basin. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, California.

Bennett,W. C., and J. B. Bird, 1964, Andean Culture History: The Archaeology of the Central Andes from Early Man to the Incas. Natural History Press, Garden City, New Jersey.

Janusek, John W., 2004, Identity and Power in the Ancient Andes: Tiwanaku Cities Through Time. Routledge, New York, New York.

Janusek, John W., 2008, Ancient Tiwanaku: Civilization in the High Andes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Kolata, Alan L., 1993, The Tiwanaku: Portrait of an Andean Civilization. Blackwell Publishers, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Kolata, Alan L., 1996a, Valley of the Spirits: A Journey into the Lost Realm of the Ancient Aymara. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, New York, New York.

Kolata, Alan L., 1996b, Tiwanaku and its Hinterland: Agroecology: Archaeology and Paleoecology of an Andean Civilization, Vol. 1. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Kolata, Alan L., 2003, Tiwanaku and its Hinterland: Archaeology and Paleoecology of an Andean Civilization, Vol. 2. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Mujica. Sonia Alconini., 1995, Rito, símbolo e historia en la pirámide de Akapana, Tiwanaku : un análisis de cerámica ceremonial prehispánica . Latin American Archaeology Publications, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Ponce Sanginés, Carlos, 1969, Descripción Sumaria del Templete Semisubterraneo de Tiwanaku. 4th ed., Los Amigos de Libro, La Paz, Bolivia.

Ponce Sanginés, Carlos, 1976, La cerámica de la Epoca I de Tiwanaku, Instituto Nacional de Arqueología Publicación No. 18. Instituto Nacional de Arqueología, La Paz.

Ponce Sanginés, Carlos, 1969, La ciudad de Tiwanaku: A proposito del ultimo libro sobre planeamiento urbano precolombino de Jorge Hardoy, Supplement to Arte y Arqueología, vol. 1. Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, La Paz, Bolivia.

Ponce Sanginés, Carlos, 1981 (1972), Tiwanaku, espacio, tiempo y cultura: ensayo de síntesis arqueológica. Los Amigos del Libro, La Paz, Bolivia (originally published, Academia Nacional de Ciencias de Bolivia, La Paz, Bolivia).

Ponce Sanginés, Carlos, 1995, Tiwanaku200 años de investigaciones arqueológicas. Producciones Cima, La Paz, Bolivia.

Ponce Sanginés, Carlos, Arturo Castaños Echazu, Waldo Avila y Fernando Urquidi Barrau, 1971, Procedencia de las Areniscas Utilizadas en el Templo precolombino  de Pumapunku. (Tiwanaku). Academia Nacional de Ciencias de Bolivia, Publicación N. 22. La Paz.

Sánchez, Margaret Y., 2004, Tiwanaku: Ancestors of the Inca. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska.

Stanish, C., 2003, Ancient Titicaca: The Evolution of Social Complexity in Southern Peru and Northern Bolivia. University of California Press, Los Angeles, California.

Silverman, Helaine, 2004, Andean Archaeology. Blackwell Publishing, Boston, Massachusetts.

Other Publications

Other references concerning the site and culture associated with the Tiahuanaco (Tiwanaku) site are:

Albarracín-Jordán, J. V., 1996a, Tiwanaku settlement system: The integration of nested hierarchies in the lower Tiwanaku Valley. Latin American Antiquity. vol. 7, pp. 183-210.

Albarracín-Jordán, J. V., 1996b, De Tiwanaku a Uma–PacajesContinuidad y cambio cultural. Beiträgezur Allgemeinen und Vergleichenden Archäologie. vol. 16, pp. 301-333.

Albarracín-Jordán, J. V., 2003, Tiwanaku: A pre-Inca, segmentary state in the Andes. In Tiwanaku and its Hinterland: Archaeology and Paleoecology of an Andean Civilization, Vol. 2, edited by Kolata, A. L., pp. 95-111. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Alconini, Sonia, 1993, La cerámica de la pirámide Akapana y su contexto social en el estado de Tiwanaku. Unpublished Licenciatura thesis, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, La Paz, Bolivia.

Bandy, M. S., 2001, Population and History in the Ancient Titicaca Basin. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California.

Bennett, W. C., 1934, Excavations at Tiahuanaco. Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History. vol. 34, pp. 359-494.

Bermann, M., Goldstein, P., Stanish, C., and Watanabe, L., 1989, The Collapse of the Tiwanaku State: A View from the Osmore Drainage. In Ecology, Settlement, and History in the Osmore Drainage, British Archaeological Reports International Series vol. 545, edited by D. Rice, C. Stanish, and P. R. Scarr, pp. 269-286. Oxford, United Kingdom.

Bermann, M., 1997, Domestic life and vertical integration in the Tiwanaku heartland. Latin American Antiquity. vol. 8, pp. 93-112.

Binford, M. W., A. L. Kolata, M. Brenner, J. W. Janusek, M. T. Seddon, M. Abbott, and J. H. Curtis, 1997, Climate variation and the rise and fall of an Andean civilization. Quaternary Research. vol. 47, pp. 235-248.

Browman, D. L., 1978a, The Temple of Chiripa (Lake Titicaca, Bolivia). In El Hombre y La Cultura Andina, III Congreso Peruano, edited by R. Matos Mendieta, pp. 807-813. Editora Lasontay, Lima, Peru.

Browman, D. L., 1978b, Toward the development of the Tiahuanaco (Tiwanaku) state. In Advances in Andean Archaeology, edited by D. L. Browman, pp. 327-349. Mouton, The Hague, Netherlands.

Browman, D. L., 1980, Tiwanaku Expansion and Altiplano Economic Patterns. Estudios Arqueológicos. vol. 5, pp. 107-120.

Browman, D. L., 1981, New light on Andean Tiwanaku. New Scientist. vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 408-419.

Browman, D. L., 1985, Cultural Primacy of Tiwanaku in the Development of Later Peruvian States. Diálogo Andino, vol. 4, pp. 59-71.

Burkholder, J., 1997, Tiwanaku and the Anatomy of Time. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, State University of New York, Binghamton, New York.

Erickson, C. L., 1988, An archaeological Investigation of Raised-Field Agriculture in the Lake Titicaca Basin of Peru. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana, Illinois.

Erickson, C. L., 1993, The social organization of prehispanic raised-field agriculture in the Lake Titicaca Basin. In Economic Aspects of Water Management in the Prehispanic New World, edited by V. L. Scarborough and B. L. Isaac, pp. 369-426. JAI Press, Greenwich, Connecticut.

Isbell, William H., 1988, City and State in Middle Horizon Huari. In Peruvian Prehistory, edited by Richard W. Keatinge, pp. 164-189, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Isbell, William H., 2004, Cultural Evolution in the Lake Titicaca Basin: Empirical Facts and Theoretical Expectations. Reviews in Anthropology. vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 209-241.

Janusek, John W., 1994, State and Local Power in a Prehispanic Andean Polity: Changing Patterns of Urban Residence in Tiwanaku and Lukurmata. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.

Janusek, John W. 2004, Tiwanaku and its precursors: recent research and emerging perspectives. Journal of Archaeological Research. vol. 12, pp. 121-183.

Janusek, John W., 2005, Residential Diversity and the Rise of Complexity in Tiwanaku. In Advances in Titicaca Basin Archaeology-1. edited by Charles Stanish, Amanda B. Cohen and Mark S. Aldenderfer. Cotsen Institute of Archaeology, pp. 143-172. University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California.

Kolata, Alan L., 1982, Tiwanaku: Portrait of an Andean Civilization. Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin. vol. 53, no. 8, pp. 15-24.

Kolata, Alan L., 1986, The Agricultural Foundations of the Tiwanaku State: A View from the Heartland. American Antiquity. vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 13-28.

Kolata, Alan L., 1991, The Technology and Organization of Agricultural Production in the Tiwanaku State. Latin American Antiquity. vol. 2, pp. 99-125.

Kolata, Alan L. 2003. Tiwanaku ceremonial architecture and urban organization. In Tiwanaku and its Hinterland: Archaeology and Paleoecology of an Andean Civilization, Vol. 2, edited by Alan L. Kolata, pp. 175-201. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Kolata, Alan L., and C. R. Ortloff, 1989, Thermal Analysis of Tiwanaku Raised Field Systems in the Lake Titicaca Basin of Bolivia. Journal of Archaeological Science. vol. 16, pp. 233-262.

Kolata, Alan L., and C. R. Ortloff, 1996a, Agroecological Perspectives on the Decline of the Tiwanaku State. In Tiwanaku and its Hinterland: Archaeology and Paleoecology of an Andean Civilization, edited by Alan L. Kolata, pp. 181-202. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.

Kolata, Alan L., and C. R. Ortloff, 1996b, Tiwanaku Raised-Field Agriculture in the Lake Titicaca Basin of Bolivia. In Tiwanaku and its Hinterland: Archaeology and Paleoecology of an Andean Civilization, edited by Alan L. Kolata, pp. 109-152. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Kolata, Alan L. and Ponce Sanginés, Carlos, 1992, Tiwanaku: the city at the centre. In The Ancient Americas: Art from Sacred Landscapes, edited by R. F. Townsend, pp. 317-334. The Art Institute, Chicago, Illinois.

Lechtman, Heather N., 1996, Arsenic bronze: dirty copper or chosen alloy? A view from the Americas. Journal of Field Archaeology. vol 23, pp. 477-514.

Lechtman, Heather N., 1997, Arsenic bronze and the Middle Horizon. In Arqueología, antropología e historia en los Andes: Homenaje a María Rostworowski, edited by R. V. Gabai and J. F. Espinoza, pp. 153-186. Instituto de Estudios Peruanos and Banco Central de Reserva del Peru, Lima, Peru.

Lechtman, Heather N., 1998, Architectural cramps at Tiwanaku: copper-arsenic-nickel bronze. In Metallurgica Andina: In Honour of Hans-Gert Bachmann and Robert Maddin, Deutsches, edited by T. Rehren, A. Hauptmann, and J. D. Muhly, pp. 77-92. Bergbau-Museum, Bochum, Germany.

Lechtman, Heather N., 2003, Tiwanaku period (Middle Horizon), Bronze metallurgy in the LakeTiticaca Basin: A preliminary assessment. In Tiwanaku and its Hinterland: Archaeology and Paleoecology of an Andean Civilization, Vol. 2, edited by Alan L. Kolata, pp. 404-434. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Lechtman, Heather N., and Andrew Macfarlane, 2005, La metalurgia del bronce en los Andes Sur Centrales: Tiwanaku y San Pedro de Atacama. Estudios Atacamenos. vol. 30, pp. 7-27.

Lennon, T., 1982, Raised Fields of Lake Titicaca, Peru: A Pre-Hispanic Water Management System. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado.

Lennon, T. 1983, Pattern Analysis of Prehispanic Raised Fields of Lake Titicaca, Peru. In Drained Field Agriculture in Central and South America, British Archaeological Reports International Series vol. 189, edited by J. Darch, pp. 183-200. Oxford, United Kingdom.

McAndrews, T., Albarracín-Jordán, J. V. and M. Bermann, 1997, Regional Settlement Patterns in the Tiwanaku Valley of Bolivia. Journal of Field Archaeology. vol. 24, pp. 67-83.

Mathews, J. E., 1992, Prehispanic Settlement and Agriculture in the Middle Tiwanaku Valley, Bolivia. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.

Mathews, J. E., 1997, Population and agriculture in the emergence of complex society in the Bolivian altiplano: The case of Tiwanaku. In Emergence and Change in Early Urban Societies, edited by L. Manzanilla, pp. 245-274. Plenum Press, New York, New York.

Moseley, M. E., R. A. Feldman, P. A. Goldstein, and L. Watanabe, 1991, Colonies and Conquest: Tihuanaco and Huari in Moquegua. In Huari Administrative Structure: Prehistoric Monumental Architecture and State Government, edited by W. H, Isbell and G. F. McEwan. Dumbarton Oaks,Washington, DC.

Mujica, E., Rivera, M., and T. Lynch, 1983, Proyecto de estudio sobre la complementariedad económica Tiwanaku en los valles occidentales del centro-sur andino. Chungara: Revista de Antropología Chilena No. 11, pp. 85-109 .

Ortloff, C. R., and Alan L. Kolata, 1989, Hydraulic analysis of Tiwanaku aqueduct structures at Lukurmata and Pajchiri, Bolivia. Journal of Archaeological Science. vol. 16, pp. 513-535.

Ortloff, C. R., and Alan L. Kolata, 1993, Climate and collapse: Agro-ecological perspectives on the decline of the Tiwanaku state. Journal of Archaeological Science. vol. 20, pp. 195-221.

Owen, Bruce, 1993, A Model of Multiethnicity: State Collapse, Competition, and Social Complexity from Tiwanaku to Chiribaya in the Osmore Valley, Peru. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles, California.

Parsons, J., 1968, An Estimate of Size and Population for Middle Horizon Tiahuanaco, Bolivia. American Antiquity. vol. 40, pp. 259-282.

Ponce Sanginés, Carlos, 1947, Ceramica Tiwanacota. Revista Geográfica Americana, vol. 28, pp. 204-214.

Ponce Sanginés, Carlos, 1991, El urbanismo de Tiwanaku. Pumapunku. Nueva Epoca. vol. 1, pp. 7-27.

Ponce Sanginés, Carlos, 1993, La ceramica de la epoca I (aldeana) de Tiwanaku. Pumapunku. Nueva Epoca. vol. 4, pp. 48-89.

Portugal Ortiz, M., and M. Portugal Zamora, 1977, Investigaciones arqueológicas en el valle de TiwanakuArqueología en Bolivia y Peru. Jornadas Peruano-Bolivianas de Estudio Científico del Altiplano Boliviano y del Sur del Perú, Vol 2, pages 243-283. Casa Municipal de la Cultura Franz Tamayo, La Paz, Bolivia.

Protzen, Jean-Pierre, and Stella Nair, 1997, Who taught the Inca stonemasons their skill? Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 146-167.

Protzen, Jean-Pierre, and Stella Nair, 2000, On reconstructing Tiwanaku architecture. Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians. vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 358-371.

Reinhard, J., 1992a, Investigaciones arqueológicas subacuáticas en el lago Titikaka. In Arqueologia subacuática en el Lago Titicaca, edited by C. Ponce Sanginés, J. Reinhard, O. M. Portugal, E. Pareja, and L. Ticlla, pp. 421-530. Editorial La Palabra, La Paz, Bolivia.

Reinhard, J., 1992b, Underwater archaeological research in Lake Titicaca, Bolivia. In Ancient America: Contributions to New World Archaeology, edited by N. Saunders, pp. 117-143. Oxford Books, Oxford, United Kingdon.

Stanish, Charles, 1989, Tamaño y complejidad de los asentamientos nucleares de Tiwanaku. In Arqueología de Lukunnata, Vol. 2, edited by Alan L. Kolata, pages 41-57. CIAT, La Paz, Bolivia.

Stanish, Charles, 1994, The Hydraulic Hypothesis Revisited: Lake Titicaca Basin Raised Fields in Theoretical Perspective. Latin American Antiquity. vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 312-332.

Stanish, Charles, 1999, Settlement pattern shifts and political ranking in the Lake Titicaca Basin, Peru. In Settlement Pattern Studies in the Americas, edited by B. R. Billman and G. M. Feinman, pp. 116-128. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Stanish, Charles, 2002, Tiwanaku Political Economy. In Andean Archaeology I: Variations in Socio-Political Organization, edited by William Isbell and Helaine Silverman, Kluwer, pp. 169-198. Academic Press, New York, New York.

Torres, C. M., 1985, Estilo e iconografía Tiwanaku en las tabletas para inhalar sustancias psicoactivas. Diálogo Andino . vol. 4, pp. 223-246.

Vranich, A., 1999, Interpreting the Meaning of Ritual Spaces: The Temple Complex of Pumapunku, Tiwanaku, Bolivia. Unpublished PhD Dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Wallace, D., 1957, The Tiahuanaco Horizon Styles in the Peruvian Highlands. Unpublished PhD Dissertation,, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley, California.



Version 4.0
Feb 20, 2008

Copyright © 1996-2008 Paul V. Heinrich All rights reserved.

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